The texture of purslane stems and leaves are pretty crunchy, and the taste has been likened to that of spinach. Researchers concluded that purslane extract appears to be a safe, adjunct treatment for type 2 diabetes. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your account. The Purslane plant is a nutrient-dense food, higher in fiber and … Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Acacia Nilotica. Most people don’t consume enough omega-3s and can benefit from increasing their intake of this essential fatty acid. Research has found that the high levels of omega-3 fatty acids, found in purslane, help to reduce the amount of LDL (bad) or bad cholesterol in the body. Adding purslane to your diet helps  lower the ratio of omega-6s to omega-3s, which researchers agree is desirable to reduce your risk of many chronic diseases. Minerals are also essential for humans to function and all of the minerals in our … Season-long control of more than 90 broadleaf weeds. Although some people try to get rid of the purslane growing in their gardens, studies show that consuming it has a slew of health benefits, including its ability to reduce inflammation, stimulate detoxification, improve the health of your bones and even alleviate respiratory conditions. These include pastured eggs, omega-3-enriched eggs, meats and dairy products from grass-fed animals, hemp seeds, and vegetables like spinach, Brussels sprouts, and purslane. If you don’t have purslane growing in your yard or garden, you can find purslane seeds online or at your local nursery. This preemergence soybean herbicide boasts three effective modes of action, including a group 15 active ingredient, to create a new level of clean. Additionally, a publication in BioMed Research International shares how purslane … Health Benefits Purslane has vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants that can provide important health benefits. 3 New Reasons To Consume Medicinal Mushrooms, Honey Mushroom & Deadly Galerina — Identification and Differences, New Event! Ancient Romans used purslane to treat dysentery, intestinal worms, headache, and stomachache. This herb is not poisonous to humans, but it can be toxic to cats. Premium Quality Seeds: You can be confident that every seed order contains fresh, premium quality, tested and inspected seeds with top tier germination rates. It helps improve heart health, reduce inflammation, support bone health and promote mental health, among other important omega-3 benefits. Who would’ve thought that eating weeds from your backyard could actually boost the health of your cardiovascular system? Health Benefits The purslane can grow in different climates, from well-tended gardens to arid areas. improve heart health, reduce inflammation, support bone health and promote mental health, among other important They are also important minerals for bone health, supporting healthy growth and development, and reducing the risk of osteoporosis. The entire plant is edible, including … Like other leafy green veggies, once you pull purslane out of the dirt by its root, you can easily prepare it for eating. Phaseolus vulgaris, 20 seeds. You can treat hepatitis using the purslane leaves. Should be harvested at 56 before the roots push out of the ground and develop … Purslane: Health Benefits and Nutritional Value. Moon Milk: Does This Trendy Drink Help You Sleep? A little more than two cups of purslane contains about 35 percent of your daily recommended intake for vitamin C. Because vitamin C acts as an antioxidant that neutralizes free radicals, it works to reduce our risk of inflammation and chronic disease. If you are eating it alone, try adding a touch of olive oil or grass-fed butter, salt and pepper for added flavor. Avoid washing the plant until right before you plan to eat it in order to avoid wilting. The small yield of seeds are zero-rated when used as animal feed. This plant also requires very little human intervention when planting. In many meals, you can simply replace spinach with purslane and you won’t feel a difference. Purslane, or Portulaca oleracea, is a plant that has originated in India and Persia, and nowadays is found in the entire world. This is possible since purslane leaves is good to improve liver function. The most recent study involving purslane seeds and health was performed on obese adolescent participants, split into two groups (3).  The first group (experimental group) was given one capsule containing 500 milligrams of powdered purslane seeds, two times a day for one month.  The second group (control group) was given the same directions, though with a placebo capsule instead.  Compared to the control group, the adolescents given purslane seeds showed statistically significant improvements in LDL cholesterol (conventionally referred to as “bad cholesterol”) and triglyceride levels – both of which, when elevated, are generally associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Repeat winner of our summer taste tests. nolytics, progestogens, oral contraceptives, danazol (a prescription drug), and hysterectomy.  Purslane seeds, too, seem to be effective, though how much money can realistically be made from a plant that grows through cracks in sidewalks? This Dr. Axe content is medically reviewed or fact checked to ensure factually accurate information. There’s clean. The previous studies were all performed on human participants.  While no research analyzing the effects between purslane seeds and liver cancer exists on actual human participants, we do have supportive evidence using human cellular cultures. These seeds usually take roughly 10 days to germinate when exposed to temperatures between 70 to 90 degrees Fahrenheit. These species produce a bright orange-red, ellipsoid berry 12-cm deep. The researchers attributed this lipid profile-improving effect to purslane’s polyphenols and antioxidants, two classes of plant compounds which have been shown routinely to be protective of cardiovascular health (4).  While the scientific literature is a bit thin when it comes to purslane seeds and lipid markers, this particular study’s results are very promising and warrant further experimentation. Researchers have found that it is relatively high in oxalic acid, an organic compound that has been linked to an increased risk of kidney stones and other health problems for some people. Mokums earliness, slenderness and sweetness transcend its flaws. Can you eat purslane, and is all purslane edible? Thanks for this interesting article about purslane. In a similar vein, it also helps in having proper digestion of food. F-1 hybrid. Watering isn’t necessary once the purslane is well settled-in. To store purslane, keep it in a plastic bag inside the refrigerator for up to a week. 100 grams of raw purslane contains about: Consuming purslane is an excellent way to increase your beta-carotene intake. Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a condition characterized by heavy, irregular, or prolonged menstrual bleeding, or unscheduled non-menstrual bleeding in premenopausal women.  Quality of life can be severely affected due to pain and discomfort, and iron-deficiency anemia can result from excessive loss of blood.  While drugs and surgery seem to be the preferred treatments in the United States, Iranian medicine treats AUB with purslane seeds.  A recent study, published in Phytotherapy Research, gives this latter treatment two thumbs up (6). Blunt Amsterdam-type that sizes extremely quickly with short weak tops, brittle and not machinable. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. During the in-vitro test on cancerous cells, the seed oil inhibited tumor cell growth exhibiting anti … Purslane seeds within pods. Now just keep the plant in sunlight and watch it sprout. Boil some purslane leaves with water, drink the water in cool state everyday until you feel better and your skin color change. This is one of the hardiest winter leaves available, an American native is also known as miner's lettuce, as it was widely eaten during the Californian goldrush. Purslane for Weight loss. great, sweet flavor! In order to fully benefit from taking purslane, some people use purslane supplements that come as powder (like this one), … Sow: Spring(or after frost) and early summer From $1.25 In the market, buy fresh and healthy-looking purslane; look carefully for mold, yellow or dark spots as they indicate inferior quality. Purslane, or Portulaca oleracea, is a garden plant that goes by many names, including duckweed, fatweed and pursley. Here are some of the benefits of purslane. If you don’t grow it intentionally, it’s sure to appear every spring, and it does well during the hot summer months, as it’s considered a succulent that can tolerate drought. are clickable links to medically peer-reviewed studies. Eating foods high in beta-carotene also helps improve respiratory and pulmonary function. Go for organic produce whenever feasible. Today, many varieties of purslane under several names grow in a wide range of climates and regions. 120 Pcs/Bag Heirloom Purslane Seed Organic Healthy Food Herb Seed Garden Greenhouse Blooming Plants Bonsai Seed On Sale ! Read Next: 8 Surprising Dill Weed Benefits (#6 Is Energizing). When you are planning to consume purslane, make sure that it hasn’t been sprayed with any harsh chemicals, like Roundup or any other toxic herbicides and pesticides. In fact, purslane contains more omega-3 fatty acids (alpha-linolenic acid in particular) than any other leafy vegetable plant. There’re many purslane benefits; for example, it cures and alleviates skin diseases and gastrointestinal complications. And there we have it:  5 documented health benefits of purslane … seeds.  Of course, many more benefits exist, as purslane seeds contain important nutrients, including α-linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid), vitamin E, and antioxidants.  If you’ve made it down this far in the post (thanks, I appreciate that! Of course, many more benefits exist, as purslane seeds contain important nutrients, including α -linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid), vitamin E, and antioxidants. Purchase Heirloom Greens Seeds HERE It’s resistant to drought and can endure the hot summer months. Vegetable substitute: Believe it or not, you can cook purslane the same way you cook other veggies. Note that the numbers in parentheses (1, 2, etc.) appx. Most of the research, however, focuses on the leafy portion of purslane, and I could devote an entire treatise on the health benefits attributed to its greens.  I won’t do that now. Research published in the Journal of Medicinal Food indicates that ingesting purslane extract helps significantly reduce systolic blood pressure and improve glucose control by reducing hemoglobin A1c levels. #PPS11-Pepper/Sweet - Chocolate Cake Sweet Pepper (90 Days) 3.5" thick walled pepper that makes a sweet green pepper that if allowed to ripen turns to a deep chocolate red. According to research published in the Scientific World Journal, “the antioxidant content and nutritional value of purslane are important for human consumption.” Testing the plant revealed tremendous nutritional potential and indicates the usefulness as a top herb for healing. Like what you’ve read?  Sign up below to receive notifications for new posts, and don’t forget to check out the Facebook ( and Twitter ( pages to learn more about wild food nutrition and identification! The seeds can be collected by hand as they mature and self drop from the plant when ready. In Asia, Central Europe and the Mediterranean region, purslane is commonly grown as a potherb. These seed pods usually break off to allow the seeds to be scattered. very educating and inspiring. I will now treat it as a VIP.. It can also be added to salads, soups, smoothies, omelettes, stews, casseroles and sauces. To discover the effects of purslane seeds on AUB, researchers recruited ten premenopausal women with AUB who did not respond to conventional drugs, and were candidates for hysterectomy.  The women were administered 5 grams of purslane seed powder in a glass of water every 4 hours orally, 48 hours after the onset of menstruation for 3 days.  Results showed that 80% of the women reported duration and volume of their bleeding had decreased, and the patterns of their periods had normalized.  What’s more, a three-month follow up revealed that abnormal bleeding had not returned in the women who originally responded to the purslane seed treatment. Well first, ... We know that inflammation is at the root of most diseases, and ... 8 Surprising Dill Weed Benefits (#6 Is Energizing). The berries ripen from July to October in the northern hemisphere. Why You Should Grow Basil - True Royalty Among Herbs. It can also be added to omelets or as a garnish on roasted vegetables or potatoes. Boiling purslane before consumption is known to help eliminate oxalic acid, but if you have a history of kidney stones, it’s best to consult your health care professional before adding it to your diet. You may notice that it grows quickly and spreads easily, which can be a bit invasive. Pumpkin seeds are an excellent source of protein, minerals, vitamins, and omega-3 fatty acids. You can also store the stems and leaves of the plant in the freezer, after washing, to have them available during the colder months when they won’t grown naturally outdoors. Vitamin C is also a immune-booster, helps improve the heart health, reduces inflammatory conditions and promotes healthy, glowing skin. A recent study found that an extract of purslane seeds reduced cell viability of hepatocellular carcinoma cells … cells that are responsible for the most common type of liver cancer (7).  Parsley seeds (Petroselinum sativum), too, displayed similar anti-cancer properties against the same cells in this particular study. “Wild Plants As Medicine” Workshop & Summer Foraging Hike, Hunting Wild Reishi Mushrooms (Ganoderma tsugae) In Hemlock Forests, Medicinal Mushroom Workshop and Summer Foraging Hike in Western Pennsylvania. Credit: Henry E. Hooper. For example, vitamin A helps your eyes … Adding purslane to your diet by including it in raw salads or adding a nutritional punch to your daily smoothie helps ensure that you get enough of these key minerals. You can eat it raw or lightly steam it. Too often when discussing the health benefits of wild plants, emphasis is placed on the obvious.  For example, the scientific literature abounds with research specifically on fruits from the Rosa genus, and it is commonly reported that some species of rose contain 20 times the vitamin C content of an orange.  But if we dig a little deeper, we soon discover that the seeds within the hips of roses also pack a nutritional punch, although in a slightly different way.  Research has demonstrated that seed oils from roses contain nutritionally and physiologically important fatty acids, including oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids, as well as several forms of vitamin E, including α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol, and γ-tocopherol (1). Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Great salad leaf that can be grown all year round! Purslane seeds usually develop in small seed pods in spring or early summer. So if you’re wondering how to get rid of purslane in your garden — you eat it! Vegetables are the richest source of essential nutrients that will keep your body running smoothly. I eat it regularly and cultivate it in my garden. Purslane is far more nutritious than most of the crops we plant, and is actually considered one of the most nutrient-dense foods on earth. Do you know if purslane seeds contain melatonin? Arguably the tastiest carrot for fresh eating in late spring and summer. De Bolster is committed to providing organic growers with premium quality seed of the best varieties. Succulent, juicy leaves, it is an excellent cut-and-come-again salad cropping right through the winter months. What are the benefits of purslane? White dutch is a perennial clover used for lawns, ground cover or erosion control. As mentioned in the last paragraph, chemotherapy is a form of cancer treatment that is routinely associated with damaging side effects.  Doxorubicin, a chemotherapeutic drug used to treat cancers of the uterus, ovaries, breast, and lung, is known to cause unwanted toxicities of the heart, kidneys, liver, and testicles. Here’s just a few of the health benefits of purslane: Seven times the beta-carotene of carrots Six times more vitamin E than spinach Fourteen times more Omega 3 fatty acids. But keep in mind that it can become invasive, so it’s best to leave some distance between the seeds/cuttings and surrounding plants. This plant is so hard to kill that before people knew of its health benefits, studies were conducted to learn the best way to eradicate it. You can eat the stems and leaves of the plant either raw or lightly steamed. Bulk White Dutch clover seeds for sale at Now onto the skincare benefits of purslane. Immigrants from India are believed to have brought purslane with them to North America, where it eventually spread into gardens across the land. Fracking Daikon Radish is a deep rooted forage radish that will make an outstanding winter cover crop. When selecting purslane seeds or plants, the most important consideration is choosing a plant that’s been grown in organic soil and hasn’t been contaminated with toxic herbicides or pesticides. to reduce amount of bad cholesterol in body and can prevent risk of heart attack. Research shows that higher intake of vitamin C is associated with a lower risk of death from stroke or coronary heart disease, along with reduced levels of LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. Another example of the obvious … grapes.  Of course, most nutritional love is directed toward the fleshy portion of the fruits.  Browse any grocery store, and the dominating seedless varieties will corroborate this.  But many a supermarket shopper will forget, however, that the juicy, sometimes-too-sugary grape, in its natural state does indeed contain reproductive structures – which just so happen to also be quite nutritious.  Research has shown that seeds from the common grape (Vitis vinifera) contain significant levels of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and potassium, as well as 8.2% protein, 14.0% fat and 38.6% fiber by dry weight (2).  Remember, these are the seeds we’re talking about … not the actual fleshly fruit. AllRemedies Partner Solutions. The recent surge in popularity of chia seeds has raised questions about the safety and potential side effects of eating chia seeds, including the possibility of allergic reactions. Top 12 Winter Vegetables to Eat & Grow (+ Benefits & Recipes), 17 Great Probiotic Foods for Better Gut Health, Detox Your Liver: Try My 6-Step Liver Cleanse, Apple Cider Vinegar Benefits and Uses (30! Research shows that because it’s an antioxidant, beta-carotene is valued for its ability to prevent chronic disease by protecting the body from damaging free radicals. The plant is rich in disease-fighting antioxidants and offers plant-based omega-3 fatty acids. Type 2 diabetes, a condition characterized by insulin resistance, is the 7th leading cause of death in the United States.  With nearly two million new cases diagnosed each year in the United States, it is important, now more than ever, to discover treatment methods that are cost-effective and safe … for example, purslane seeds. A 2016 study by Chinese researchers suggests that purslane seed oil has antioxidant and antiproliferative properties can help reduce oxidative stress. Sprinkle seeds onto moist soil and press them in lightly. Use is contraindicated during pregnancy and for those with cold and weak digestion. Thanks for reading, and as always … happy foraging! Although oxalic acid is normally eliminated from the body through urine or stool, consuming foods with high amounts may cause adverse reactions for anyone with a sensitivity to the compound. In a study published in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology, participants with type 2 diabetes were divided into two groups (5).  The experimental group was given 5 grams of purslane seeds twice daily, while the control group was given metformin, a standard oral antidiabetic drug.  Results showed that purslane seeds were just as effective as metformin in decreasing fasting and postprandial (after meal) blood glucose, as well as insulin levels.  Additional results included a significant decrease in serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, body weight, and body mass index.  The researchers attributed these effects to purslane seeds’ polyunsaturated fatty acids, flavonoids, and polysaccharides. £14.00 £ 14. How to Plant Purslane. Note that the numbers in parentheses (1, 2, etc.) If you want all the benefits of a cover crop but don't want to till early or mow, clover is your best bet. This helps to promote a healthier cholesterol balance in our bloodstream. are clickable links to these studies. Purslane Benefits for Skin. Summer purslane (Portulaca oleracea) is best known as an invasive weed, but this wild-growing succulent plant is also completely edible, and it's delicious, too.Also known as little hogweed, verdolaga, common purslane, portulaca, and pursley, summer purslane adds a slightly tangy note to soups and stir-fries, and its juicy … The total fiber content of dried chia seeds is around 38 percent, and … Its habit of growing like a weed is where purslane may get its weed-based reputation. Start in containers indoor This article is based on scientific evidence, written by experts and fact checked by our trained editorial staff. Minerals. Whether growing it from seeds, a cutting, or a stem piece, purslane … Purslane can grow anywhere that has at least a two-month growing season. Purslane is Rich in Omega-3 Fatty Acids. Toning and Smoothing: Purslane contains the maximal levels of omega-3 fatty acids among vegetables which are paramount to maintaining absorptive cell walls that allow nutrients to enter while releasing toxins. Green Purslane Seeds (Portulaca oleracea) 40+ Rare Heirloom Herb Seeds in FROZEN SEED CAPSULES for The Gardener & Rare Seeds Collector - Plant Seeds Now or Save Seeds for Years. Focus instead on purslane’s taste and nutritional benefits. Change ). Of course, many more benefits exist, as purslane seeds contain important nutrients, including α-linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid), vitamin E, and antioxidants. The deep taproot of the large rooted plant can help break up the tough, compacted soil, improve water infiltration, suppresses weeds, eliminate pests and stores nitrogen. Simply scatter the seeds on top of soil, use your fingers to gently rake it over and cover the seeds. Of course, the sample size was small (ten participants), and few (if any) additional studies exist on this subject.  The results are promising, however, as both traditional (Iranian) and modern medicine have reported success using purslane seeds to treat AUB. The plant has an impressive nutrient profile, with high amounts of vitamins A and C, magnesium, manganese, and potassium. It can help, What is the taste of purslane? This makes purslane a great vegan omega-3 option. Caralluma Fimbriata for Appetite Suppression & Weight Loss: Does It Work? Purslane contains ALA (alpha-linolenic acid) omega-3 which researchers say is necessary for good health and disease prevention. The leaves of this weed are one of the best sources of omega-3 fatty acids, which have numerous health benefits related to their anti-inflammatory properties. You’ll notice that the flavor is similar to spinach or. Health benefits of eating purslane weed Heart health. ), Chia Seeds Benefits: The Omega-3, Protein-Packed Superfood, 9 Proven Black Seed Oil Benefits that Boost Your Health, Top 15 Potassium-Rich Foods to Start Eating Today, 25 Acidic Foods to Avoid and Healthier Alternatives. Chia seeds are an excellent source of fiber which, along with their significant omega-3 content, contributes to the widely touted cardiovascular benefits of these powerhouse seeds. Purslane's medicinal use dates back at least 2,000 years, but it was used as food well before this period. Eat more vegetables, amaranth, water spinach, Chinese cabbage, bitter gourd, such as lotus root, and purslane, sharp wolfberry, Cai Deng and vegetables. Always seek advice from a professional before growing and/or consuming seeds and/or plants for medicinal purposes. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for normal development and growth, and they also lower blood pressure, decrease triglycerides, decrease the risk of heart … For many, it pops up in their gardens come springtime without any effort. Store in an airtight container, where they will last for up to 7 years. After removing from water, mop it with a soft cloth to remove any moisture in them before storing inth… Purslane and miners lettuce are related, and the seeds are saved in the very same way. Wash fresh leaves and stem in clean cold running water in order toremove any sand and insecticide/fungicide residues. Dwarf Bean- Windsor Long Pod. α-tocopherol.  Clearly, purslane is a nutritional superstar, and it sure is a wonder as to why health experts aren’t rallying more (if at all) for this pervasive plant. Our team aims to be not only thorough with its research, but also objective and unbiased. ( Log Out /  ( Log Out /  Have tried to eliminate it to no avail! Harvesting purslane. Anti-aging: Purslane has the ability to decrease … Research has shown that an ethanolic (alcoholic) extract of purslane seeds and shoots demonstrated protection against doxorubicin-induced damage in adult male rats, all while improving liver function, increasing antioxidant activity, and decreasing oxidation of lipids (8).  The researchers concluded that supplementation with purslane shoot and seed extracts may provide a cushion against the toxicity caused by doxorubicin … without producing any harmful side-effects. Our team includes licensed nutritionists and dietitians, certified health education specialists, as well as certified strength and conditioning specialists, personal trainers and corrective exercise specialists. Purslane re-seeds spontaneously, and a single plant can be harvested up to 3 times during the year. Winter Purslane Seeds Miners Lettuce Claytonia perfoliata. The 5-year survival rate for individuals with any stage of liver cancer is 15% … quite an astoundingly low percentage.  Current conventional treatments include surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy – treatments which are all well-known to present serious side effects.  Purslane seeds may not save the world from any form of liver cancer, though they ought to be considered viable candidates, as research suggests, when evaluating potential therapeutic options. It has been used for thousands of years in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and is referred to as the \"vegetable for long life.\" Aerial parts are dried and use… The information in our articles is NOT intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional and is not intended as medical advice. Image by Rare Seeds. Thank you for the information. NOT FOR CONSUMPTION Pennyroyal Mint seeds are ornamental only. If you want to make sure you’ll have purslane available after the summer months, try freezing it and adding it to warming soups, stews and casseroles during the fall and winter seasons. Most people consider purslane a weed, but it’s actually loaded with health-promoting nutrients. You can also propagate this beneficial plant with cuttings by simply adding them to soil. Our efficiency directly benefits you: Or facility's efficiency has allowed us to save on costs, and those savings have been extended to you with great prices. Top 10 Vitamin B5 Foods (Pantothenic Acid), Top 20 Anti-Inflammatory Herbs and How to Use Them. Gallery ® specialty herbicide provides superior preemergence broadleaf weed control with best-in-class ornamental and turf safety. 100 g fruit provides just 26 calories and contains no saturated fats or cholesterol; however, it is rich in dietary fiber, anti-oxidants, minerals, vitamins. Cut and … Today, the standard treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding includes the levonorgestrel intra-uterine system, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antifibrinolytics, progestogens, oral contraceptives, danazol (a prescription drug), and hysterectomy.  Purslane seeds, too, seem to be effective, though how much money can realistically be made from a plant that grows through cracks in sidewalks? And know that you can grow it from seed in your garden or even in a window box. Purslane is a rich source of potassium, magnesium and calcium. Our efficiency directly benefits you: Or facility's efficiency has allowed us to save on costs, and those savings have been extended to you with great prices. Not only does purslane contain vitamin A, vitamin … ... Do you know some of the best vitamin B5 foods? Dwarf (Bush) Long green pods growing to 20cm . Keep Asking Questions Until You Get … List of various diseases cured by Acacia Nilotica. Until the seeds germinate, keep watering the soil, but don’t let it get too soggy. The stem and leaves of purslane are jam-packed with important and essential nutrients. If you buy purslane seeds to get started, you’ll likely never need to buy them again, since one plant can produce over 50,000 seeds through the course of its lifetime. Purslane has strong regenerative effects on a cellular level and is rich in antioxidants as well as omega-3 fatty acids. Repels bugs, mosquito, and other insects - naturally. In addition to these beta-carotene benefits, studies indicate that consuming the antioxidant is particularly important for women who are pregnant and breastfeeding because vitamin A plays a critical role in the healthy development of the fetus and newborn.

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