[a] However, with symbols for SI units (such as m or kg)—as opposed to the names of these units (such as metre or kilogram)—the numerical value is always separated from it with a space: a 25 kg sphere. [17] This is different, however, from instances where prefixes that are normally closed up (styled solidly) are used suspensively. [19][additional citation(s) needed] However, some do allow for this use. Sometimes the term is limited to non-breaking hyphens. Skinner, B. F.) Alphabetize the list by the first author's last name of of each citation (see sections 9.44-9.49) Capitalize only the first word, the first after a colon or em dash, and proper nouns; Don't capitalize the second word of a hyphenated compound Citations in-text are acknowledged with (Author, Date) or Author (Date). #APAcitations #APAreferences #culturalsensitivity, Thoughts on publishing in a journal for the…. In the ASCII character encoding, the hyphen is character 45. Many last names in China and Korea are one syllable, and first names often consist of two names (often hyphenated). The hyphen-minus is often used instead of dashes or minus signs in situations where the preferred characters are unavailable (such as ASCII-only text), where the preferred characters take effort to enter (via dialog boxes or multi-key, unmemorable keyboard shortcuts), or when the writer is unaware of the distinction. Thus, A fairly comprehensive list, although not exhaustive, is given at. You should have some information for each of the four elements (author, date, title, source), but if a detail does not exist, leave it off. ), This article is about the punctuation mark. 2. Note: The SOFT HYPHEN serves as an invisible marker used to specify a place in text where a hyphenated break is allowed without forcing a line break in an inconvenient place if the text is reflowed. When one of the parts of the modifier is a proper noun or a proper adjective, there is no hyphen (e.g., "a South American actor").[19]. His double hyphen appears throughout the Bible as a short, double line inclined to the right at a 60-degree angle: ⸗. The use of hyphens is called hyphenation. For example, Chiang Kai-shek's last name is Chiang and Mao Tse-tung's last name is Mao. The hyphen is sometimes used to hide letters in words (filleting for redaction or censoring), as in G-d, although an en dash can be used as well ("G–d"). 3,023 Likes, 39 Comments - William & Mary (@william_and_mary) on Instagram: “Move-In looks a little different this year, and we know there are mixed emotions right now. retreat and re‑treat would be indistinguishable with a line break after re), or in languages other than English (e.g., a line break at the hyphen in Irish an t‑athair or Romanian s‑a would be undesirable). (In contrast, the hyphen in "a more-important reason" is not necessary, because the syntax cannot be misinterpreted.) Apart from dash and minus sign, Unicode has multiple hyphen characters:[29]. Dit (pronounced "dee") is a French form of the word dire, which means "to say," and in the case of dit names is translated loosely as "that is to say," or "called. When an object is compounded with a verbal noun, such as egg-beater (a tool that beats eggs), the result is sometimes hyphenated. (2001). [16][17] Although the expression is technically ambiguous ("students of a high school"/"school students who are high"), it would normally be formulated differently if other than the first meaning were intended. [23] However, at least one major style guide[21] hyphenates spelled-out fractions invariably (whether adjective or noun). To write in-text citations in IEEE style, the citations should be numbered and included in square brackets. Citing an Entire Source: Author Name Included in Preceding Sentence . Self-identifying citations and references in the article text should be avoided. Click on the resource you want to cite from the Source Type column on the right (or from the drop-down menu if using a mobile device). 1. Various implementations of the getopt function to parse command-line options additionally allow the use of two hyphen-minus characters, --, to specify long option names that are more descriptive than their single-letter equivalents. Hyphens are usually used to connect numbers and words in modifying phrases. For example Julia Louis-Dreyfus is a descendant of Louis Lemlé Dreyfus whose son was Léopold Louis-Dreyfus. If the first name is hyphenated (e.g., … Authors' names are inverted (last name first); give the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work unless the work has more than six authors. Soft hyphens are inserted into the text at the positions where hyphenation may occur. APA citation basics. Unicode also encodes the minus and hyphen separately, as U+2212 − and U+2010 ‐ respectively. The character is usually followed by one or more letters that indicate specific actions. She and her…” Germans[citation needed] and Slavs also used Roman numerals for the month; 14‑VII‑1789 (14 July 1789), for example, is one way of writing the first Bastille Day, though this usage is rapidly falling out of favour. His tools did not allow for a sublinear hyphen, and he thus moved it to the middle of the line. It becomes visible only after word wrapping at the end of a line. On the other hand, in the phrase a hungry pizza-lover, the hyphen will often be omitted (a hungry pizza lover), as "pizza" cannot be an adjective and the phrase is therefore unambiguous. This era also saw the introduction of the marginal hyphen, for words broken across lines. Now all official European governmental documents use this. For example, "that gentleman is well respected", not "that gentleman is well-respected"; or "a patient-centered approach was used" but "the approach was patient centered. It can be a tedious task to insert the soft hyphens by hand, and tools using hyphenation algorithms are available that do this automatically. If the author's first name is hyphenated, include the hyphen with a full stop after each initial (e.g. Plaques on the wall of the Moscow Kremlin are written this way. However, this is not always desirable behavior, especially when it could lead to ambiguity (e.g. This usage is now common and specifically recommended in some style guides. As Unicode is identical to ASCII (the 1967 version) for all encodings up to 127, the number 4510, i.e. The comparative value relevance of donation and advertising expenditure before and after the global financial crisis in Korea. "Therefore, the first name is the family's original surname, passed down to them by an ancestor, while the "dit" name is … All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented or make hanging 0.5 inch from the left margin. Asian Social Science, 9(5), 34-50. doi:10.5539/ass.v9n5p34. B. Some editors prefer to avoid suspending such pairs, choosing instead to write out both words in full.[21]. A hyphen may be used to connect groups of numbers, such as in dates (see below), telephone numbers or sports scores. For example, wholly owned subsidiary and quickly moving vehicle are unambiguous, because the adverbs clearly modify the adjectives: "quickly" cannot modify "vehicle". Uses such as "applied and sociolinguistics" (instead of "applied linguistics and sociolinguistics") are frowned upon; the Indiana University style guide uses this example and says "Do not 'take a shortcut' when the first expression is ordinarily open" (i.e., ordinarily two separate words). Acknowledge a citation with author's last name and publication year. If a template does not appear, you may need to allow pop-ups from your browser. Nevertheless, in applications like Microsoft Excel the hyphen-minus must be used to indicate subtraction, as use of the Unicode minus sign will produce an error. Complete the template form with information from your source. Some stark examples of semantic changes caused by the placement of hyphens to mark attributive phrases: The first known documentation of the hyphen is in the grammatical works of Dionysius Thrax. [25] In Greek these marks were known as enotikon, officially romanized as a hyphen. The Gutenberg printing press required words made up of individual letters of type to be held in place by a surrounding non-printing rigid frame. This is also the typical date format used in large parts of Eastern Europe and Asia, although sometimes with other separators than the hyphen. Compound modifiers are groups of two or more words that jointly modify the meaning of another word. Scholar Assignments are your one stop shop for all your assignment help needs.We include a team of writers who are highly experienced and thoroughly vetted to ensure both their expertise and professional behavior. The hyphen-minus character is also often used when specifying command-line options. [17], When a compound modifier follows the term to which it applies, a hyphen is typically not used if the compound is a temporary compound. List authors' last name first followed by the first and middle initials (ex. Unicode distinguishes the hyphen from the general interpunct. Use of hyphens, as opposed to the slashes used in the English language, is specified for international standards. We also have a team of customer support agents to deal with every difficulty that you may face when working with us or placing an order on our website. [12] For example, the phrase more-important reasons ("reasons that are more important") is distinguished from more important reasons ("additional important reasons"), where more is an adjective. A blinded manuscript without any author names and affiliations in the text or on the title page. The hyphen-minus has limited use in indicating subtraction; for example, compare 4+3−2=5 (minus) and 4+3-2=5 (hyphen-minus) — in most fonts the hyphen-minus will not have the optimal width, thickness, or vertical position, whereas the minus character will. "Shuh-shuh-gah" (from Ojibwe zhashagi, "blue heron") in The Song of Hiawatha. This interrupted the letters in the last word, requiring the remaining letters be carried over to the start of the line below. In general, cite: what is available on the work you are citing, and; what would make it easy for another person to find that work. An example of an ambiguous phrase appears in they stood near a group of alien lovers, which without a hyphen implies that they stood near a group of lovers who were aliens; they stood near a group of alien-lovers clarifies that they stood near a group of people who loved aliens, as "alien" can be either an adjective or a noun. [14] This usage is now rare and proscribed, except in some place names such as Ah-gwah-ching. As the character is also used as a minus sign, it is formally denoted U+002D - HYPHEN-MINUS. Even the Unicode Standard regularly uses the hyphen-minus rather than the Unicode hyphen. However, if the compound is a familiar one, it is usually unhyphenated. Some married couples compose a new surname (sometimes referred to as a double-barrelled name) for their new family by combining their two surnames with a hyphen. Non-hyphenated is an example of a hyphenated word. When the first modifier in a compound is an adverb ending in -ly (e.g., "a poorly written novel"), various style guides advise no hyphen. Connecting hyphens are used in a large number of miscellaneous compounds, other than modifiers, such as in lily-of-the-valley, cock-a-hoop, clever-clever, tittle-tattle and orang-utan. Similarly, there's a man-eating shark in these waters is nearly the opposite of there's a man eating shark at table 6; the first is a shark, and the second a man. This is applied whether numerals or words are used for the numbers. 4. The hyphen should not be confused with dashes (figure dash ‒, en dash –, em dash —, horizontal bar ―), which are longer and have … Browse our listings to find jobs in Germany for expats, including jobs for English speakers or those in your native language. Thus 28-year-old woman and twenty-eight-year-old woman or 32-foot wingspan and thirty-two-foot wingspan, but the woman is 28 years old and a wingspan of 32 feet. In some countries only the woman hyphenates her birth surname, appending her husband's surname. The characters below do not have the Unicode property of "Hyphen" despite their names:[29], (See interpunct and bullet (typography) for more round characters. Noun–noun compound modifiers may also be written without a hyphen when no confusion is likely: grade point average and department store manager. For other uses, see, For Wikipedia's own standards for hyphen use, see, With numbers greater than two, where a plural noun would normally be used in an unhyphenated predicative position, the singular form of the noun is generally used in the hyphenated form used attributively. Without the hyphen, there is potential confusion about whether the writer means a "player of American football" or an "American player of football" and whether the writer means paintings that are "little celebrated" or "celebrated paintings" that are little. Properly citing publications in your writing adds to your credibility as an author, makes it easier for your readers to find the works you have cited, and makes the cited publications more searchable to other researchers. For example, Chiang Kai-shek's last name is Chiang and Mao Tse-tung's last name is Mao. The Tasmanian Tiger was the last in a line of predatory marsupials that ranged across Australia, New Zealand, and Tasmania during the Pleistocene Epoch, and it may well have preyed on the Giant Short-Faced Kangaroo and the Giant Wombat, described above. eval-u-ate (Separate only on either side of the u; do not leave the initial e- … The non-breaking space exists for similar reasons. However, as the Unicode hyphen is inconvenient to enter on most keyboards and the glyphs for the Unicode hyphen and the hyphen-minus are identical in most fonts (Lucida Sans Unicode is one of the few exceptions), use of the hyphen-minus as the hyphen character is very common. A government-monitoring program is a program that monitors the government, whereas a government monitoring program is a government program that monitors something else. With already-hyphenated names, some parts are typically dropped. In the United States, the term hyphenated American refers to the use of a hyphen (in some styles of writing) between the name of an ethnicity and the word "American" in compound nouns, e.g., as in "Irish-American".It was an epithet used from 1890 to 1920 to disparage Americans who were of foreign birth or origin, and who displayed an allegiance to a foreign country through the use of … [27], The modern format of the hyphen originated with Johannes Gutenberg of Mainz, Germany, c. 1455 with the publication of his 42-line Bible. However, this has become rare. Use is often dictated by convention rather than fixed rules, and hyphenation styles may vary between authors; for example, orang-utan is also written as orangutan or orang utan, and lily-of-the-valley may be hyphenated or not. How to cite in IEEE style. Basic Rules 1. Some writers use two hyphen-minuses -- to represent an em dash in ASCII text. Such is the case when used to describe dimensional measurements of weight, size, and time, under the rationale that, like other compound modifiers, they take hyphens in attributive position (before the modified noun),[21] although not in predicative position (after the modified noun). Gutenberg solved the problem of making each line the same length to fit the frame by inserting a hyphen as the last element at the right-side margin. Some authors do this consistently, others only for disambiguation; in this case, egg-beater, egg beater, and eggbeater are all common. Similarly, hyphens may be used to indicate a word is being or should be spelled. A suspended hyphen (also called a suspensive hyphen or hanging hyphen, or less commonly a dangling or floating hyphen) may be used when a single base word is used with separate, consecutive, hyphenated words that are connected by "and", "or", or "to". Happy referencing! The non-breaking hyphen addresses this need. However, if an adverb can also function as an adjective, then a hyphen may be or should be used for clarity, depending on the style guide. Hence, one must observe correct punctuation guidelines when writing the author’s names for bibliographic entries. Similarly, more-beautiful scenery (with a mass-noun) is distinct from more beautiful scenery. A separate title page, containing title, all author names, affiliations, and the contact information of … To cite works of others, APA style uses an author-date citation method. This method has gained influence within North America, as most common computer filesystems make the use of slashes difficult or impossible. Use the following format: Username or group name; Date as year, month, day. Bureau international des poids et mesures, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Webster's Third New International Dictionary, English compound § Hyphenated compound modifiers, Prefix > List of English derivational prefixes, "Using Hyphens in Compound Adjectives (and Exceptions to the Rule)", "Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI)", National Institute of Standards and Technology, Hellenic Organization for Standardization, Wiktionary list of English phrases spelled with a hyphen, word breaking, line breaks, and special characters (including hyphens) in HTML, Unicode interpretation of SOFT HYPHEN breaks ISO 8859-1 compatibility, hypho-o online soft hyphen insertion tool, United States Government Printing Office Style Manual 2000, Intellectual property protection of typefaces, Punctuation and other typographic symbols, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hyphen&oldid=1003840977, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with Greek-language sources (el), Articles which use infobox templates with no data rows, Articles that may contain original research from January 2016, All articles that may contain original research, All articles needing additional references, Articles needing additional references from January 2016, Articles needing additional references from November 2020, Articles containing Romanian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 30 January 2021, at 23:22. 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Author names and affiliations in the article text should be avoided type to held... ] however, this is not speaking of little paintings [ additional citation ( s ) ]. Is specified for international standards standard American representation this character in Unicode text or on wall... Right at a 60-degree angle: ⸗ most of the Moscow Kremlin are written this way because the syntax not... Or group name ; Date as year, month, day aspects of en dash–versus–hyphen use, dash! Major style guide [ 21 ] # APAreferences # culturalsensitivity, Thoughts publishing!, and first names often consist of two names ( often hyphenated ), although not exhaustive, assigned! Son was Léopold Louis-Dreyfus a Unicode hyphen initial ( e.g to find jobs in Germany expats... In the English language, is given at school students, to high-school students without. Connect numbers and words in full. [ 21 ] and John Smith might jane! Style Sheets ( CSS ) standard provide language-specific hyphenation dictionaries native language Louis-Dreyfus is government... [ 14 ] this usage is now common and specifically recommended in some style guides instead to write both. Incorrectly separated by a space followed by one or more letters that indicate specific actions an! Is Mao, 9 ( 5 ), this is applied whether numerals or are! Parts are typically dropped Thoughts on publishing in a journal for the… jane Doe and John Smith-Doe or! `` a more-important reason '' is not always desirable behavior, especially when could. Your browser [ additional citation ( s ) needed ] however, some style guides prefer the construction high students! Container’S titles this usage is now common and specifically recommended in some countries only the woman hyphenates her birth,... Speaking of little paintings a hyphen that is, it does not force a line ] [ citation. 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Crisis in Korea reason '' is not always desirable behavior, especially when could. In contrast, a hyphen any author names and affiliations in the last word, requiring the letters... Or those in your native language had been incorrectly separated by a low tie mark the! Jobs in Germany for expats, including jobs for English speakers or in... The following format: Username or group name ; Date as year, month, day, followed by hyphen... Before and after the global financial crisis in Korea in-text are acknowledged with ( author, Date ) to. List, although not exhaustive, is assigned to this character in Unicode be read by. Except in some style guides the following format: Username or group name ; as... Whether numerals or words are used for the numbers or a Non-breaking Hebrew. -- to represent an em dash in ASCII text to the standard American representation be a hyphen! Specifying command-line options such as Ah-gwah-ching ), 34-50. doi:10.5539/ass.v9n5p34 this article is about the punctuation mark the construction school! Jointly modify the meaning of another word be numbered and included in Preceding.! ( not pre- and postoperative ( not pre- and post-operative ) when.. Multiple hyphen characters: [ 29 ] by initials: Jones, a fairly comprehensive list, not. Julia Louis-Dreyfus is a descendant of Louis Lemlé Dreyfus whose son was Léopold Louis-Dreyfus source: author name included square. Common computer filesystems make the use of hyphens, as opposed to the start of the time you’ll first to! Is usually unhyphenated a dash or switch in this category be numbered and included in square brackets without a.! ( author, Date ) or author ( Date ) or author ( Date ) author. Way of writing a person 's last name is Chiang and Mao Tse-tung last! Moscow Kremlin are written this way when suspended such as Ah-gwah-ching s ) ]. Not force a line break in an inconvenient place when the text on... Hyphen-Minus Non-breaking hyphen Hebrew maqaf the hyphen is character 45 when the text is later reflowed has gained within! Example Julia Louis-Dreyfus is a program that monitors the government, whereas a government monitoring program is descendant. Each initial ( e.g used when specifying command-line options, month, day. [ 21 ] spelled-out!: grade point average and department store manager connect two words zhashagi, `` blue heron ). Hyphen, a each source should appear in the last word, requiring the remaining letters be carried over the... Chiang and Mao Tse-tung 's last name before the first Bastille day a space followed by initials: Jones a. That jointly modify the meaning of another word few short and common words—such as well,,! U+2010 ‐ respectively the wall of the paper hyphens, as opposed to the standard American representation this category scenery... The Gutenberg printing press required words made up of individual letters of type be. Word, requiring the remaining letters be carried over to the standard American representation especially when it could to! Multiple hyphen characters: [ 29 ] a single word could lead to (...: author name included in Preceding Sentence the minus and hyphen separately, most. '' ( from Ojibwe zhashagi, `` blue heron '' ) in the reference list join. Likely: grade point average and department store manager countries only the hyphenates... That one is not always desirable behavior, especially when it could lead to ambiguity ( e.g of... Text is later reflowed the use of hyphens, as opposed to right. Numerals or words are used for the numbers is Chiang and Mao Tse-tung 's name. Printing press required words made up of individual letters of type to be held place. And words in modifying phrases parentheses ) should follow the author 's first name cited. Broken across lines Johnson and Samantha Taylor-Wood became Aaron Taylor-Johnson and Sam Taylor-Johnson letters. One is not speaking of little paintings Shuh-shuh-gah '' ( from Ojibwe zhashagi, `` blue heron '' in! Program that monitors something else number 4510, i.e within a written Date is and. Be avoided only the woman hyphenates her birth surname, appending her husband 's surname ASCII ( 1967! Hyphen separately, as most common computer filesystems make the use of hyphens, as opposed to the slashes in!

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