Between 1905 and 1933, the number of German schools rose from 59 to 176. Upon the invitation of Catherine the Great, 25,000 Germans immigrated to the Volga valley of Russia to establish 104 German villages from 1764 to 1767. Because they had a pro Nazi government and had set up routes for Nazis to escape there. [1], German Argentines have founded German schools such as the Hölters Schule and German-language newspapers such as the Argentinisches Tageblatt ("Argentine Daily"). (2020, August 28). Source: "Los Alemanes del Volga" 1977 Victor Popp - Nicolás Dening. Russia first made changes to th… Franz Stangl. The opposite was true in Russia, Protestant Volga Germans outnumbered Catholics by about 2 to 1. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, D.C. Christopher Minster, Ph.D., is a professor at the ​Universidad San Francisco de Quito in Ecuador. We saw the screaming fans, the gushing Merkel, the annoyed Messi, and the glorious moment when the German team raised the Golden cup in the air in a cloud of confetti and colourful fireworks, for the fourth time in the World Cup’s … Before delving into the facts of the situation, it should be noted that there are several versions of the story of an Antarctic Nazi base. This can be attributed to increased immigration restrictions in the United States and Brazil as well as the deteriorating conditions in post-World War I Europe. The ratio of Catholic to Protestant Volga Germans in South America was 7 to 1. Kazal, Russel, 2004, Becoming Old Stock: The Paradox of German-American Identity, (Princeton: Princeton University Press). Argentina was earmarked as a safe haven for fleeing Nazis partly due to its well established German immigrant population. San José (1887) - called Dehler by the colonists and situated in, Santa Trinidad (1887) - called Hildmann by the colonists and situated in, Santa María (1887) - called Kamenka by the colonists and situated in, Colonia General Alvear (1878), includes the following 5, Colonia San Jerónimo/San Jerónimo Norte (Swiss German). At present, the descendants of these people live disseminated all over Argentina. There are still fifteen villages in Entre Ríos populated by descendants of the original settlers, twelve of them are of Catholic origin, and the remaining three, Protestant. Cervecería y maltería or Quilmes Beer Company is an Argentine Brewery founded in 1888 in Quilmes, Buenos Aires Province, by Otto Bemberg, a German immigrant. The Argentinian government not only welcomed the former German … Argentine Wine. (descendants of German citizens: 1 million) It is a special treat to drink a glass of wine in the same city in … These people settled in Colonia General Alvear in the province of Entre Ríos. Some well-known Nazis that emigrated to Argentina are Obersturmbannführer Adolf Eichmann, Nazi doctors Josef Mengele and Aribert Heim, Commander Erich Priebke, Commandant Eduard Roschmann, and General Lieutenant "Bubi" Ludolf von Alvensleben. After World War Two, thousands of Nazis and wartime collaborators from France, Croatia, Belgium and other parts of Europe were looking for a new home: preferably as far away from the Nuremberg Trials as possible. Ten Fugitive Nazi War Criminals who went to South America, 11 Facts About Dr. Josef Mengele, the Auschwitz "Angel of Death", Rise and Fall of Nazi Officer Franz Stangl, Biography of Juan Perón, Argentina's Populist President, Top Ten Villains of Latin American History, The Wannsee Conference and the Final Solution, The Gestapo: Definition and History of the Nazi Secret Police, Rudolf Hess, Nazi Who Claimed to Bring Peace Offer From Hitler. Groth, Hendrik, 1996, Das Argentische Tageblatt: Sprachohr der demokratischen Deutschen und der deutsch-jüdischen Emigration, (Hamburg: Lit Verlag). It is currently the fifth most spoken language in Argentina. The sentiment in Russia became decidedly anti-German. Many more were allowed to go to Argentina instead because the Allies were reluctant to hand them over to their new communist rivals where the outcome of their war trials would inevitably result in their executions. We all saw it. Switzerland had remained neutral during the war, but many important leaders had been outspoken in their support of Germany. The Nazis in Argentina kept Hitler’s torch burning, won new converts in the region’s militaries and passed on the advanced science of torture and “death squad” operations. Spain was still ruled by the fascist Francisco Franco and had been a de facto member of the Axis alliance; many Nazis would find safe if temporary, haven there. "Why Argentina Accepted Nazi War Criminals After World War II." Germany as a political entity was founded only in 1871, but immigrants from earlier dates are also considered German Argentines due to their shared ethnic heritage, language and culture. Studies of this period inherently favor Buenos Aires, where half of all Germans lived, over the colonias, where fewer institutions (particularly newspapers) developed. Many influential Argentines, including wealthy businessmen and members of the government, were openly supportive of the Axis cause, none more so than Perón himself, who had served as military attaché to Benito Mussolini's Italian army in the late 1930s. Great Britain and the United States became aware of the threat that Argentina's German-speakers, which were a quarter-million strong, acted as the Reich's agent. Luebke, Frederick C., 1987, Germans in Brazil: A Comparative History of Cultural Conflict During World War I, (Baton Rouge, Louisiana: Louisiana State University). Argentina was not the only place in South America that accepted Nazis and collaborators as many eventually found their way to Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and other parts of the continent. Micolis, Marisa, 1973, Une communauté allemande en Argentine: Eldorado: Problèmes d’intégration socio-culturelle, (Québec, Centre international de recherches sur le bilinguisme). So despite the numerous stories told of Volga German immigrants being diverted to South America against their will or being sent there because they were denied entry to the US due to health reasons, Brazil and Argentina were the planned destination of many Catholic Volga German immigrants. Bjerg, María, “The Danes in the Argentine Pampa: The Role of Ethnic Leaders in the Creation of an Ethnic Community, 1848-1930,” in Mass Migration to Modern Latin America, 2003, edited by Samuel Baily and Eduardo José Míguez, (Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources Inc.), 147-166. From the point of view of Argentine strategists at the end of the nineteenth century, it was a clever move to fall in line with the strongest European war machine. Seyferth, Giralda, “German Immigration and Brazil's Colonization Policy,” in Mass Migration to Modern Latin America, 2003, edited by Samuel Baily and Eduardo José Míguez, (Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources Inc.), 227-244. This colony was composed of 6 villages: Asunción (Spatzenkutter), Concepción (Valle María), San José (Brasilera), Agricultores (Protestante), San Francisco (Pfeiffer), and Salto (Koeller). There are many towns and regions there where only German is spoken, due to German expatriate communities making up the majority of the local population. Due to the hundreds of thousands of German immigrants who lived in the country, Argentina maintained close ties with Germany and remained neutral for much of … Some of the smarter Nazi officers and collaborators saw the writing on the wall as early as 1943 and began squirreling away gold, money, valuables, paintings and more, often in Switzerland. [citation needed], During the penultimate period, from 1933 to 1940, Argentina experienced another surge in German immigration. These men retained their positions after the war and were in a position to help out. [citation needed], The military connection between Argentina and Prussia has often been emphasized, and sympathy for Germany among the general staff in Buenos Aires contributed to establishing Argentina's policy of neutrality during the First and Second World Wars. They even paid off British officers to let them through Allied lines. A flourishing relationship developed between Germany and Argentina as early as the German Unification, with Germany eventually coming to hold a privileged position in the Argentine economy. Minster, Christopher. The group did not congregate as tightly and participated more in general culture. Additional Volga Germans, some from Brazil and others directly from Russia, arrived in Argentina over the next few years. "Why Argentina Accepted Nazi War Criminals After World War II." Solberg, Carl, 1970, Immigration and Nationalism, Argentina and Chile 1890-1914, (Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press). [5] It is a language that can be heard all over the country, and this is partly maintained by the continued existence of German-speaking Argentines and some business connections. Apparently, two submarines had landed on the Argentinian coast, and Hitler with Eva Braun was on board the second. ThoughtCo. Under the guidance of Andreas Basgall, Volga Germans started to relocate to Argentina from Brazil in December 1877, and in January 1878 they founded the first Volga German colony of Hinojo, in the province of Buenos Aires. During the third period, after a pause due to World War I, immigration to Argentina resumed and German speakers came in their largest numbers. Some large groups of Volga Germans on ships destined for Brazil were diverted to Argentina. Some German Argentines originally settled in Brazil, then later immigrated to Argentina. Like many cities settled by Germans, its development was greatly influenced by them and today the city has many examples of Chalet-style architecture brought by German, Swiss and Austrian immigrants. Other wanted war criminals were too cautious to be found: Josef Mengele drowned in Brazil in 1979 after having been the object of a massive manhunt for decades. It is common knowledge that Argentina was a safe haven for many Nazis after World War II. Many Catholic Volga Germans chose South America as their new homeland because the official religion in Brazil and Argentina was Roman Catholic. German immigration to Argentina occurred during five main time periods: pre–1870, 1870–1914, 1918–1933, 1933–1940 and post–1945. The single Lutheran village was Agricultores (Protestante or Protestantendorf). group of peasants from Germany who were enticed to settle the often inhospitable and dangerous region of south-central Russia Minster, Christopher. Some people, including Perón and some of his advisors, predicted that World War III would break out as soon as 1948. Many South American countries were home to large communities of ethnic Germans during and after … Some of them lived in Argentina under their real names, but others clandestinely obtained new identities. The allies did not want to try these men themselves (only 22 defendants were tried at the first of the infamous Nuremberg Trials and all told, 199 defendants were tried of which 161 were convicted and 37 were sentenced to death), nor did they want to send them to the communist nations that were requesting them, so they turned a blind eye to the ratlines carrying them by the boatload to Argentina.. "The Nuremberg Trials." Tried and found guilty of crimes against humanity, he was executed in 1962. It was Argentina that made a concerted effort to rescue as many Nazis as possible. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/why-did-argentina-accept-nazi-criminals-2136579. Well it seems like the opportune place to go. Nugent, Walter, 1992, Crossings: The Great Transatlantic Migrations, 1870-1914 (Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press). Minster, Christopher. Flags of Argentina, Buenos Aires Province and Germany in front of St. Joseph Catholic Church in, Historical ties with Argentina and Germany, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Gartenstadtschule — Colegio Ciudad Jardin —, The Real Odessa: Smuggling the Nazis to Perón's Argentina, https://web.archive.org/web/20070928131650/http://www.sippo.ch/files/news/press_06ra.pdf, Deutscher Bundestag 4. Nazi war criminal Adolph Eichmann stands in a protective glass booth flanked by Israeli police during his trial June 22, 1961 in Jerusalem. Wealthy Germans and Argentine businessmen of German descent were willing to pay the way for escaping Nazis. In addition, dishes like chucrut (sauerkraut) and many different kinds of sausage-like bratwurst and others have also made it into mainstream Argentine cuisine. [citation needed], Today, most German Argentines do not speak German at home because of the decline of the language; however, some estimates suggest that 1.8 million Argentines of non-German descent have some knowledge of German. Argentina welcomed hundreds if not thousands of them: the Juan Domingo Perón regime went to great lengths to get them there, sending agents to Europe to ease their passage, providing travel documents, and in many cases covering expenses. Zur Wirkung der politischen Entwicklung in Deutschland auf die Deutschen in Argentinien,” in Nationalsozialismus und Argentinien: Beziehungen, Einflüsse und Nachwirkungen, 1995, edited by Helger Medding, (Frankfurt: Peter Lang – Europäischer Verlag der Wissenschaften), 11-30. He is a former head writer at VIVA Travel Guides. German and Italian influence in Argentina was strong mainly due to the presence of numerous immigrants from both countries, and Argentina's traditional … Although Argentina would eventually declare war on the Axis powers (a month before the war ended), it was partly a ploy to get Argentine agents in place to help defeated Nazis escape after the war. During World War Two, Argentina clearly favored the Axis because of close cultural ties with Germany, Spain, and Italy. In recent years a number of these stories have become popular online, with dozens of sites perpetuating them.The simplest story is that there was a (descendants of Volga Germans: more than 2 million), German Argentines (German: Deutschargentinier, Spanish: germano-argentinos) are Argentine citizens of German ancestry. German immigrants began establishing themselves and developing newspapers, schools, and social clubs. Graefe, Iris Barbara, 1971, Zur Volkskunde der Rußlanddeutschen in Argentinien, (Vienna: Verlag A. Schnell). Half of the 45,000 German speakers who immigrated at this time settled in Buenos Aires. Later on, Argentina maintained a strong economic relationship with both Imperial Germany and the British Empire, supporting both their wartime economies with supply shipments during World War I. [citation needed] In the first period numbers were generally low; of note are the colonias alemanas, first founded in the province of Buenos Aires in 1827. Americans and British Didn't Want to Give Them to Communist Countries. The former founded Santa María and Santa Teresa, the latter Guatraché, San Martín, and Alpachiri. The Catholic Church was extremely helpful as several high-ranking church officials (including Pope Pius XII) actively aided in the Nazis' escape. The immigration of Germans from Russia to Argentina kept a steady pace until the beginning of World War I. Crespo in Entre Ríos Province and Coronel Suárez in Buenos Aires Province became the most outstanding centers of colonization, as in both cities people of Volga German descent make up the majority of the population. [2]. The history of Argentina during World War II is a complex period of time beginning in 1939, following the outbreak of war in Europe, and ending in 1945 with the surrender of Japan. This meant that the concepts of acculturation and linguistic and cultural persistence were not dealt with in the same way. A century after the first Germans had settled in the Volga region, Russia passed legislation that revoked many of the privileges promised to them by Catherine the Great. Members of your family or a library may have documents that name the city or town, such as: 1. The numerous progeny of the founders and the division and distribution of their properties into smaller lots forced many of them to abandon the original colonization sites and find new occupations. Schönwald, M.: Deutschland und Argentinien nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg. Nearly 90% of the first Volga Germans who arrived in Argentina settled there. Russia first made changes to the German local government. They comprised 28% of total immigration to the country, as mass migration to Argentina was slowing. Investigators believe that following the war, a cabal of ex-Nazis and Nazi collaborators formed in Argentina and worked with the Perón government (he became president in 1946) to organize the emigration of hundreds, perhaps even thousands, of their kind to Argentina. Archaeologists are trying to determine whether ruined buildings in a remote nature reserve in Argentina were built as a hide-out for German … Colonia General Alvear was for many years the main settlement of Volga Germans in Argentina. WHAT HE’S INFAMOUS FOR: Nicknamed the “White Death” for his … The majority were German Jews although other German opponents of Nazism also arrived. Five of six villages were Catholic. During the second period, Argentina experienced a boom in immigration due to massive economic expansion in the port of Buenos Aires and the wheat and beef producing Pampas. ThoughtCo, Aug. 28, 2020, thoughtco.com/why-did-argentina-accept-nazi-criminals-2136579. The fact that Argentina appears among the most important grain producers of the world is, in part, the responsibility of its citizens of Volga German origin. Argentina, in particular, became a refuge under the sympathetic regime of President Juan Peron, who helped protect Nazi war criminals. Scobie, James, 1974, Buenos Aires: From Plaza to Suburb, 1870–1910, (New York: Oxford University Press). Most germans that came after WWII were Kriëgsmarine sailors and the country was desperate to get all the engineers, scientist and officers it could. Once you have traced your family back to your immigrant ancestor, you must determine the city or town the ancestor was from. Some of these men were even quite successful financially, such as Herbert Kuhlmann, a former commander of the Hitler youth who became a prominent businessman. German Argentines today make up the fourth-largest ethnic group in Argentina, with over two million Volga Germans alone. A handful of them was eventually tracked down and sent back to Europe for trials, such as Josef Schwammberger and Franz Stangl. The first census of the Volga Germans in Argentina was performed on March 31, 1881, in "Colonia General Alvear", Entre Rios Province. The Catholic Church also lobbied heavily in favor of these individuals not being repatriated. Argentina took all germans that could get its hands on before they were captured by the USSR or the USA. Why Argentina Accepted Nazi War Criminals After World War II. Weyne, Olga, 1986, El Último Puerto: Del Rhin al Volga y del Volga al Plata, (Buenos Aires: Editorial Tesis S.A.). 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